A soldier earns experience during combat. After the mission, the soldier will then earn a random amount of stat increases based on what experience the soldier acquired during combat.
How Experience Points Are Applied
Soldier stats can be divided into two areas, primary and secondary stats.
- Primary stats only increase when particular actions are performed. To see exactly how to trigger each stat, follow its link. The stats are:
- The number of primary skill points you earn at the end of a combat mission relies solely on the number of primary actions you perform during combat. Your current skill level doesn't matter. It doesn't matter if you have the lowest recruit value, or you're one point below the cap.
- Points assigned have a stairstep function, corresponding to a range within which points are rolled. The range increases as more actions are performed:
Primary Roll Average Actions* Range Increase *Successful Psi actions count as 3 actions - see below 1-2 0-1 0.5 3-5 1-3 2.0 6-10 1-4 2.5 11+ 2-6 4.0 256+ 0 0
- Performing more than 11 actions doesn't cause any more increase. This was tested out to 200 actions. Once you reach 11, you get a 2-6 roll, and that's that.
- Performing more than 255 actions of a given type will cause all experience to be lost. This is known to be true for Psi actions, and is presumably true for other actions as well.
- As you can see, there are distinct breakpoints at 3 actions and 11 actions, corresponding to an average increase of 2 and 4 skill points, respectively. Three actions are the best "bang for the buck", if you have a limited number to spread across your squad (a.k.a., a limited number of aliens to kill). It's not an issue with psi or throwing (which you can do all you want), but is for other primaries. Then again, letting your soldiers throw 3 times just before ending a mission maximizes Throwing Accuracy growth vs. your personal time spent. That is, if you give a damn about Throwing.
- A 0 roll is not possible for primary skills, if you perform 3 or more actions. See ranges (above). Conversely, one or two actions do not guarantee a skill increase, and your second action can even be seen as a waste, because it soaks up an action without increasing the roll range. If someone's done one or two actions, try to get them to three, if you can.
- Psi actions are a special case. Successful panic or mind control (MC) attempts cause the psi experience counter to go up by three actions. Thus, you only need to do 4 successful MCs or panics to get all the psi skill points you're going to (4x3=an experience count of 12). But unsuccessful attempts only cause the counter to go up by one. So you need 11 failed attempts to get to the 2-6 roll range, just like for all other primary stats. (Be careful not to do more than 85 successful Psi attacks per soldier in a given combat, or all Psi experience for that soldier will be discarded.)
- When you think about it, Ye Olde Programmers Of Yore made a simple and robust system where all squaddies are expected to participate, and hopefully each of them get to make a few primary actions that increase their score some real amount each combat mission. (And only fools test out to 200 actions - Ed.)
- It is possible to get +6 skill points if you did 11+ actions when at Cap -1, which means that an 'overflow' maximum stat value (on last mission before going over cap) of Cap+5 (but no more) is possible. See Regarding Caps. Few of your soldiers will ever achieve Cap+5, however. First, you have to catch the fact that one of your soldiers is right at Cap-1 and be sure to do 11+ actions next combat. Then, there's only a 20% chance of rolling a 6 (with range 2-6). Finally, you do have to be right at Cap-1, without having overflowed to some lower Cap+ value previously. So probably only a few percent of soldiers will ever see Cap+5 - except for Psi Skill, which has no true cap. (And Psi skill is probably the only primary stat you'll get to cap anyway, unless you're into real marathon games!)
Bravery experience can also be gained on the battlefield, but by a very different means from all the other primary stats. The bravery stat itself is stored in increments of 10 (10 minimum, 100 maximum, with 110 possible for certain non-human units), and it can only increase by 10 points at most following each combat.
To gain bravery experience, a unit must have its Morale reduced below 50, where it stands a chance of panicking or going berserk. If the unit successfully resists panicking, it will gain a "bravery experience" point. Each bravery experience point gives the unit an additional 10% chance of gaining +10 Bravery at the end of the combat. 11 or more bravery experience points will guarantee a Bravery gain. [Ethereal Cereal: I suspect it's only 10 required, and not 11.]
Like other primary stats, gaining one or more bravery experience points during a combat will trigger possible secondary stat increases as well.
- Throwing is also an oddball. While it follows the rules for all primaries except Bravery, it only increases your Throwing Accuracy. It does not trigger secondaries to increase. (It would've been too easy to increase stats, otherwise! Actually, Psi is even easier, but at least it takes a while to research psi.)
- Secondary stats increase when one or more primary actions are performed (except for throwing). Secondary skills are:
- Secondary skill points work quite differently from primary skills: It does not matter how many primary actions are taken; all that matters is that you did one primary action -- and your secondaries will increase all that they're gonna. It also doesn't matter if you did more than one kind of primary skill.
- Another difference is that unlike primary stat gains, the current level of your secondary stats influences how many additional points you will gain. If a rookie has low starting stats, this is the amount he or she can expect to gain:
STARTING VALUE POSSIBLE INCREASE TUs 51-60 0-4* ENERGY 41-50 0-5* HEALTH 25-30 0-5 STRENGTH 21-30 0-6*
- * Maximum possible increase will be one point higher if the rookie has the lowest possible starting stat: 50 for TUs, 40 for Energy, or 20 for Strength.
- The maximum possible increase falls steadily as your secondary skills approach their caps, down to an average of 1 point (range 0-2) per combat for each stat. This is actually a charitable simplification; for a graph of skill increases vs. current levels, see here.
- Viewed as an even slope, Stamina has the "farthest to go" to reach its cap. A table can be composed of how many combats are needed on average to max out each secondary stat:
TIME UNITS STAMINA (ENERGY) STRENGTH HEALTH Level Inc. CMs Level Inc. CMs Level Inc. CMs Level Inc. CMs R_Min 50 2.20 40 4.00 20 6.00 25 3.80 R_Max 60 1.67 6 70 1.86 12 40 2.50 6 40 2.00 6 Cap 80 1.00 15 100 1.00 22 70 1.00 19 60 1.00 14 Total 21 34 25 20
- This table shows Recruit Min and Max levels, and the Cap for each stat. Then it shows the average Increase per combat mission at each of these three levels. For example, you get +2.20 TU skill point increase per combat, on average, when at TUs=50. Then "CMs" shows the number of Combat Missions to go from e.g. TU Recruit Min to Recruit Max (takes 6 CMs), on the average, where you are successively adding a little less points each CM. The next CMs entry is number of combats to go from Recruit Max to Cap. Finally, "Total" shows the total average CMs to go from Recruit Min to Cap. Of course, the actual number of points assigned is highly variable (it's rolled randomly within the range of points possible), so you may get real lucky (or unlucky) in any one stat. These are only averages.
- As stated before, Stamina has the "farthest to go" (34 turns in total from Recruit Minimum to Cap). So if you're aiming to have soldiers that hit their caps across the board a.s.a.p., favor a high recruit Stamina over other secondary stats.
- Note that even if a primary skill is over its cap, you can still increase (non-capped) secondaries by performing a capped primary action.
- As stated, all secondaries will "slow" to getting only 0-2 points when at Cap-1. Thus, you can only have an 'overflow' (on last combat mission when you go over the cap value) of Cap+1 for secondaries. Considering the probabilities involved, soldiers have a 37.5% chance of getting Cap+1 on their secondary stats.
Putting It All Together
- While you might focus on the averages stated above, the actual points assigned are entirely random. The range is the correct indicator of what to expect for any one soldier on any one combat mission. This follows the usual XCOM behavior of defining a range and rolling randomly within it.
- Do your best to get every soldier you are interested in developing, to get at least one primary action (not including throwing). This will trigger secondary stat increases. Then try to shoot for the big breakpoints of 3 or 11 primary actions. Doing more than 11 actions does not increase a particular primary stat any more, so give other soldiers the chance to perform actions once your favorite soldiers have maxed out on theirs.
- Any soldier can (and will!) ultimately become a maxed-out superman. The worse a secondary stat is, the quicker it will rise. And you can try to target who performs which primary actions. Taking advantage of the breakpoints of 3 and 11 can also help you manage potential skill increases (a.k.a. targets) as effectively as possible. That said,
- Early in the game, don't spend much time or money fretting over stats. Any soldier is liable to come up snakes with their Psi strength. And every soldier can otherwise eventually become a superman.
- As many sages have said, one of the best ways to max experience -- once you have psi on board -- is to 1) mind control aliens, 2) line them up for a firing squad, 3) put a couple of laser pistols in their hands (once everybody has powered or flying armor -- see Laser Pistol Gifts), then 4) reaction fire with standard-issue pistols. This increases your psi, firing, reaction, and secondary skills. If the aliens you capture are psi-capable, you can train bravery as well. For more tips on increasing skills, see the links at the bottom of the Firing Accuracy page.
- The truly devious might want to keep a pet Muton base (once you have psi ability). Drop in, kill them down to one Mutie, and withdraw. Milk those thick-skinned greenies til you're maxxed! -- tip from Zombie
- In the endgame (when you have tons of cash), if you're a micromanager role-playing to make soldiers who are maxxed across the board, it's arguably more important to pick recruits who are not anomalousy low in any one stat, rather than ones who are high in a few things. In other words, if your goal is 100% stats, one really bad stat may slow you down more than e.g. being a particularly good newbie shooter. Firing accuracy, reactions, and stamina have the biggest span between recruit values and work needed to max them out. Related to this: Reactions are easier to increase with firing squads than Firing Accuracy (reaction shots count even if they miss, but only hits count for Firing Accuracy; however, a Reaction level of below 50 or especially 40 can be crippling, because everybody else will fire first and kill the targets). Anomalously low stats can also be the basis for throwing out soldiers who "aren't performing" -- if one of their stats is much farther from the maximum than the rest.
Every soldier statistic has a maximum allowed value, as shown in the table below. Your soldier will eventually have a value equal to or slightly greater than the cap. It is allowed to go over the cap, the very last time you have a combat while it is still under the cap. For example, the maximum Firing Accuracy is 120. If you go into a combat at 119, do lots of shooting, and get a +5 roll, you will walk away with 124 Firing Accuracy - but it will never increase again. (Unless you like to hack... heh heh heh.)
Primary skills can overflow their cap by 5, and secondary skills can overflow their cap by 1, as shown here:
Primary Stat Min Cap Max Cap Psi Skill 100 105+* Firing Accuracy 120 125 Reactions 100 105 Throwing Accuracy 120 125 Melee Accuracy 120 125 Secondary Stat Min Cap Max Cap Time Units 80 81 Stamina 100 101 Health 60 61 Strength 70 71
*Psi Skill is the only exception to the cap rule. Combat will operate normally - you'll never see an increase from combat once you're 100+ Psi Skill - but Psi Lab training will continue to add 1-3 points each month.
FWIW: You have a 37.5% chance of getting Cap+1 for secondary skills, and you have no control over what happens (barring reloading your game and ending combat again).
For primaries, a soldier that does 11+ actions (for a 2-6 roll) every single combat mission will get Cap+5 in that primary skill 5% of the time, on average. By "every single mission" I mean, without regard for the fact you're nearing the cap (and playing with the possible roll results). You can increase the odds to as high as 20%, if you use the primary increase roll ranges to inch your way up to Cap-1, then do 11+ actions on your final combat. Or you can have a 0% chance of Cap+5 if you don't pay attention and don't do 11+ actions near the cap!
- With the exception of Psi Skill training in the Psi Lab, all stats can only be trained through combat experience.
- Any combat experience earned will influence promotions. The soldier with the highest amount of experience in total will have the best chance of being promoted to the next rank. Bravery training will count towards a promotion as well.